Why did Jesus need to be baptized?
Question: What was the meaning of Jesus’ baptism? In Matthew 3:16, we read that when John baptized Jesus, the Holy Spirit descended “like a dove” and rested on Him. Is this when the human Jesus Christ first received the indwelling of the Holy Spirit?
Answer: This misunderstanding of Jesus’ baptism is very common and is frequently expressed by those who believe in the false doctrine of “adoptionism”—the idea that Jesus was not the Son of God before His baptism—and who want to deny or diminish Jesus Christ’s pre-existing eternal presence in the Godhead.
Jesus Christ existed as the Logos—the “Word”—from the very beginning (John 1:1). This very same divine Being came to the earth “in the flesh”—and Scripture labels as “Antichrist” the idea that Jesus was not fully human (1 John 4:3; 1 Timothy 3:16). Yet Scripture also makes it plain that Jesus Christ would come to the earth as “God with us” (Matthew 1:23; cf. Isaiah 7:14).
How could Jesus be a human being coming forward for baptism, yet also be “God with us”? Reconciling these facts will not only help us understand how and when and why Jesus Christ received the Holy Spirit; it will even help us understand something about His nature—a subject much misunderstood by mainstream “Christianity.”
We know from Scripture that Jesus was born of a virgin and that He was conceived by the Holy Spirit (Isaiah 7:14; Matthew 1:20). Yet, although the Logos was God, He voluntarily gave up His Godhood, emptying Himself of divine power and privileges—in what is known as His kenosis (Greek for “emptying”)—to become a human being (Philippians 2:5–7, NRSV). Yes, when Jesus Christ was a man, He was really a man, and when He died, He spent three days and three nights in the grave before His Father raised Him to eternal life.
Notice that, throughout His ministry, Jesus again and again made clear that His Father was greater than He (John 14:28). Christ did not claim to do miracles or offer His teachings on His own authority; rather, He clearly pointed to His Father as the source: “The words that I speak to you I do not speak on My own authority; but the Father who dwells in Me does the works” (John 14:10). Scripture shows that there were sometimes limits to what the Father would authorize the human Jesus Christ to accomplish when faced with unbelievers who knew Him simply as Mary’s son, the carpenter. Notice this account of His visit to Nazareth: “Now He could do no mighty work there, except that He laid His hands on a few sick people and healed them” (Mark 6:5).
So, why did Jesus go to John the Baptist for baptism? John—whose mission was to prepare the way for Jesus’ ministry (Matthew 3:1–3)—was surprised, himself, telling Jesus, “I need to be baptized by You, and are You coming to me?” But the Lord reassured him, replying, “Permit it to be so now, for thus it is fitting for us to fulfill all righteousness” (Matthew 3:14–15). As our Savior, whose life Christians commit themselves to emulating (1 John 2:6; 1 Peter 2:21), Jesus Christ set a complete example for us to help us know how to fulfill God’s righteous will and plan for our lives. That example included baptism.
Unlike today’s Christians, who are begotten by the Holy Spirit after repentance and water baptism, Jesus Christ—who had no sins of which to repent—received the indwelling Holy Spirit from the moment of His conception. He was Immanuel—God with us, the Word become flesh (John 1:14). Filled without measure with the Holy Spirit (John 3:34), He lived a perfect, holy, and righteous life even before beginning His ministry. John baptized only with water, but at Jesus’ baptism, which set the example for all who would follow, God gave a sign—the Spirit descending “like a dove”—indicating that Jesus’ followers would be baptized not only with water but with the Holy Spirit. This is the meaning of Jesus’ baptism by John.
Editor’s Note: This Q&A originally said that Christ had “emptied Himself of divinity” when He was incarnated. This did not accurately communicate the meaning of “emptied Himself,” as the Greek phrasing of Philippians 2:7 is often properly translated (e.g., in the English Standard Version). Rather, Jesus emptied Himself of His divine power and prerogatives when He became flesh, as we have long taught and published and as explained here. We apologize for the error.